Fresh eyes can transform the world, and a world beset by pandemics, climate change, and unfairness is primed for change like none we’ve ever seen.
That’s why, after a five-year hiatus, Popular Science is reintroducing the Brilliant 10: an annual list of early-career scientists and engineers who are coming up with novel solutions to issues in a variety of fields.
To locate those trailblazers, we conducted a nationwide search, screening hundreds of scholars from a variety of universities.
These thinkers are our best hope for handling tomorrow’s—and today’s—unprecedented difficulties.
Allison Wing: Making forecasts less cloudy
Michael Giacomelli: Surgical Pathology in Overdrive
Bianca Jones Marlin: Untangling generational trauma
Matthew Stamm: Detecting deepfakes by dusting for digital fingerprints
Frank Leibfarth: Removing contaminants from drinking water indefinitely
Josiah Hester: Non-battery power for electronics
Brenda Rubenstein: Data storage in a chemical slurry
Fangqiong Ling: Using smart sewers to track public health
Michael Troxel: Bringing light to the dark side of things
Stacy Branham: Adapting technology to meet the needs of those who most need it
REDUCING THE RISK OF FUTURE FORECASTS
Allison Wing identifies a flaw in the primary climate models throughout the world: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports take into account water vapor,
but not how it produces clouds—or, more particularly, how they cluster in the sky.
In fact, according to a meteorologist at Florida State University, these airborne puffs could be the biggest source of uncertainty in our climate estimates.
Wing’s models and simulations could aid in predicting how a warmer globe would transform clouds and storms,
as well as whether these changes will worsen global warming.
Cloud patterns have already been shown to have diverse local effects.
“The atmosphere is drier and warmer generally when clouds are clumped together rather than randomly distributed,” Wing continues, “and there is really less cloud covering overall.”
And this has an impact on the flow of radiative energy through our climate system.”
Wing’s findings, which were published in the Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems in 2020,
show that the intricacies of cloud activity could change how we think about our climate future and how quickly we get there.
She says, “Not just how they’re clustering, but everything about them.”
She hopes to learn more about how elements like cloud density, height, and brightness might change as the globe heats,
with the help of a group of 40 international scientists, she heads in running mathematical simulations of the atmosphere.
Focusing on those features could improve the accuracy of global warming forecasts.
Wing is now interested in answering concerns about extreme weather occurrences,
such as what factors influence the frequency of hurricanes we get each year and why major storms are becoming larger and wetter at a faster rate.
Her findings indicate a “cloud greenhouse effect,” in which infrared radiation reflected as the sun warms the Earth is trapped beneath embryonic storms, causing bigger storms to form more quickly.
She is hoping that observational data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s CloudSat research satellite,
which she received as part of a NASA grant in 2021, will confirm the presence of this phenomenon.
Wing intends to make the re-creations more realistic over time by modeling prior hurricanes in great detail,
a process with so many variables that Wing runs it on the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s supercomputer in Wyoming.
She eventually hopes to use NASA’s satellite photography (i.e., the real world) to make possibly life-saving forecasts.
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY TURBOCHARGED
Nothing tops Mohs surgery when it comes to getting biopsy findings quickly.
Pathologists examine excised skin malignancies on-site to ensure that all hazardous cells have been removed, reducing scarring.
Other popular cancer surgeries, such as those for the prostate and breast, still rely on days-long lab work to establish clear margins,
which can lead to the need for repeat treatments. And it’s all quite time-consuming.
Michael Giacomelli, a biomedical engineer at the University of Rochester, has developed a microscope that can discover malignant cells from a variety of tumors in near-real-time, putting even Mohs surgery to shame.
Going small is the key. A two-photon microscope, the type of imager he’s constructed, has been available for decades,
but their high price tags (typically $500,000 or more) and expansive form factors (components are sometimes stacked in a space the size of a utility closet) make them unfeasible for most operating rooms.
With the use of lasers, the scopes detect sick cells: Tumor cells have enlarged nuclei as a result of their extra DNA,
and the swollen organelles glow under laser light when bathed in a particular dye.
Giacomelli continues, “They’re able to reach into a wet, bloody, messy mass of tissue and look at what’s there.”
He knew that smaller, lighter lasers were being utilized for welding and on manufacturing floors because of his knowledge in optics.
Finding colors that worked at their wavelength and didn’t destroy human tissue for further in-depth follow-up in a standard lab was crucial.
In a derivative of the ink used in pink highlighters, he found one matching color.
The laser that sets it alight weighs 5–25 pounds after years of trial and error that began at MIT and a few revisions.
The equipment, which includes a microscope, monitor, CPU, keyboard, and joystick, fits on a handcart small enough to transport between surgeries. The cost is estimated to be around $100,000.
The impact might be significant, with over 100,000 breast cancer surgeries and millions of skin cancer procedures performed each year in the United States.
At Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, an older version of Giacomelli’s equipment (one the size of a washing machine) has been in a clinical trial for breast cancer patients since 2019.
Doctors could identify harmful cells just as well with the new technology as with existing methods,
according to research published in Modern Pathology on prostate cancer screening.
Giacomelli plans to test his new, more streamlined setup on Mohs and other skin cancer operations next.
He also wants to get his imaging equipment into remote clinics that don’t have access to tissue laboratories for quick answers.
Modifying his scope to allow for 3D imaging, which could enhance results for malignancies with complicated shapes such as melanoma,
could also open doors: He claims that looking at tumors in 2D inhibits our grasp of what’s going on.
“I believe 3D imaging will play a significant role in diagnosis.”
TRANSGENERATIONAL TRAUMA DISCOVERED
Bianca Jones Marlin attributes her success to her siblings. They’re all over 30. Her parents took in dozens of foster children, and that isn’t a typo.
“Things you wouldn’t even want to imagine have happened to my siblings,” she says.
That’s why Marlin, a Columbia University psychologist and neuroscientist who has also fostered children,
focuses on a small subset of epigenetics, or the effects of our surroundings and behaviors on our genes.
She examines how stress and trauma are passed down across the generations, even when forefathers and descendants have little or no touch.
She claims that “the world transforms your brain, your body, and your offspring.”
“That has huge ramifications for society and how we forecast what will happen in the future.”
She points out that communities that have experienced starvation, genocide,
or any number of other hardships may develop increased anxiety and PTSD in subsequent generations.
Identifying the mechanisms through which stress “travels to the future” could lead to new avenues for therapy and prevention, potentially ending the trauma cycle.
Marlin’s research, which focuses on brain development and learning, began with the discovery of one of the reasons behind a seismic shift in social behavior.
She demonstrated in 2015 how the hormone oxytocin makes mouse mothers more sensitive to their babies’ distress sounds.
She’s been studying the impact of environmental stress and trauma in lab mice since then.
But how do such modifications get handed down to the next generation? Marlin says, “That is the lovely, vital question that we’re working on.”
Until previously, scientists have only observed anecdotal evidence of such effects: For example, a famed famine in the Netherlands near the end of WWII exacerbated health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and schizophrenia not only in adults who were affected,
but also in their children, implying that reproductive cells could store a memory of the trauma.
Marlin’s research on mice has shown that a learned behavior (associating the smell of almond with an electric shock) is linked to an increase in the number of olfactory cells that respond to that scent in offspring.
“We talk about it in culture,” she says, “but it’s considered a myth because we don’t know the mechanism.”
Marlin is very aware that her findings could be exploited to stigmatize and possibly damage some groups of individuals.
“I’d be sad if, 15 years from now, people could take the work that we’ve done and use it as a wall, presuming that because your forefathers went through it, you’re going to go through it as well,” she adds.
Or, worse, evil actors could torture or harass with the express aim of injuring future generations, she says.
The advantages are sufficient to keep her going. “We can produce positive changes if we can induce negative and severe changes,” Marlin explains. “That is epigenetics’ allure. It isn’t going to last.”
FINDING DEEPFAKES BY SEARCHING FOR DIGITAL FINGERPRINTS
“It is impossible for a criminal to act, especially given the gravity of the crime,
without leaving signs of his presence,” observed Edmond Locard, a pioneer of forensic research in the twentieth century.
It’s a quote that Matthew Stamm uses a lot. However, the Drexel University computer engineer isn’t looking for fingerprints or hair strands; instead,
his tools and approaches identify even the tiniest changes to digital objects, known as deepfakes.
Deepfaking has progressed from a nasty prank—using AI to place celebrity actors’ faces on porn stars’ bodies,
to a worrisome online danger including all kinds of synthetic multimedia since its early Reddit days in 2017.
No one knows how widespread the phenomenon has become because detection is much newer than the conduct itself.
Sensity, an Amsterdam-based security business, revealed that the number of cases detected by its in-house sniffer more than doubled in the first half of 2020.
However, with the release of easy-to-use programs like MyHeritage, Avatarify, and Wombo,
which have already been used to animate tens of millions of photographs, that figure is undoubtedly low.
“From a technology standpoint, the ability to quickly make visually convincing, wholly phony material has overtaken our ability to handle it.
Stamm adds, “And, more crucially, from a social one.” The acts, according to a Congressional Research Service analysis from 2021, pose significant national security risks.
They can be used to propagate false information to blackmail elected authorities, radicalize communities, sway elections, or even ignite the war.
The looming threat has inspired a slew of corporations and researchers, including industry heavyweights like Microsoft and Facebook, to build software that detects AI forgeries.
However, Stamm, who is being financed by DARPA to develop automatic deepfake detectors,
points out that artificial intelligence is only utilized to create a small portion of the manipulated media that we need to be concerned about.
Without specialized talent or hardware, anyone can construct so-called cheap fakes or dumbfakes using Adobe Photoshop.
Nancy Pelosi’s films were manipulated in 2019 with slower soundtracks to make her appear inebriated and slur her sentences.
Joe Biden, then-candidate in 2020, appeared to fall asleep during an interview due to spliced videos.
Stamm’s method of image analysis can detect even the most subtle of changes, no matter how convincing they appear.
He points out that “every processing part, every actual hardware device involved in generating a piece of media leaves a statistical trace.”
His methods were based on a notion known as forensic similarity, which identifies and compares digital “fingerprints” left behind in distinct areas.
His software shatters photos into tiny fragments and runs an analysis that compares every element of the shot to every other portion to uncover localized evidence of almost any kind of criminal modification.
Stamm’s most recent project focuses on emotional consistency in the video, aligning voice patterns (intensity and tone) with facial characterizations (expressions and movements).
Stamm’s wife, a psychologist, came up with the idea after noticing how difficult it is for video alterations to maintain emotional consistency over time, particularly in voices, he adds.
These methods are still in the early stages of development, but they show promise.
REMOVING ‘PERMANENT CHEMICALS’ FROM WATER
The Cape Fear River in North Carolina supplies drinking water to much of the state’s southern region.
PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are chains of tightly bonded carbon and fluorine with a well-deserved reputation as “forever chemicals.”
For decades, DuPont fed something unsavory into the waterway: PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, which are chains of tightly bonded carbon and fluorine with a well-deserved reputation as “forever chemicals.”
PFOA and PFOS are two of them, and they can cause high cholesterol, thyroid illness, reduced immunity, and cancer.
Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has discovered them in nearly every American whose blood has been tested.
While DuPont (via a division now known as Chemours) stopped producing household staples like Teflon, Scotchgard,
and Gore-Tex in 2013, the residues of earlier formulas of household staples like Teflon, Scotchgard, and Gore-Tex still exist.
Frank Leibfarth, a chemist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, has developed a filter that can remove these toxins, and he’s starting with the polluted streams of the Tarheel State.
Fluorinated polymers, such as PFAS, are a specialty of Leibfarth. He was focusing on developing cheap and sustainable alternatives to single-use plastics,
whose exteriors are sometimes toughened with fluorine, before the NC Policy Collaboratory paid him to help with the state’s water pollution problem in 2018.
Diapers inspired Leibfarth’s solution: “They’re super-absorbent polymers that suck up a lot of water,” he adds.
He created a fluorine-based resin with a structure similar enough to PFAS to bind and retain the chemicals.
According to research published in the journal American Chemical Society Central Science in April 2020,
the material filters nearly all toxic chemicals from water, including 100 percent of PFOA and PFOS.
Because the material is inexpensive and scalable, municipal water treatment plants can use the filters as a secondary filtration step.
In 2021, the North Carolina legislature will debate several PFAS-remediation measures, one of which would fund Leibfarth’s solution’s commercialization,
which would include manufacturing the resin and fitting it to municipal filtration systems. Other cities will undoubtedly follow suit.
According to the non-profit Environmental Working Group, there are more than 2,000 locations with verified PFAS contamination in the United States as of January 2021.
Seven states have already implemented chemical limitations in their drinking water, with more to follow.
In the midst of all of this, the Environmental Protection Agency recognized a new PFAS exposure hazard in March 2021: the same hardened plastic containers that Leibfarth’s initial research hopes to eliminate.
“I want to transform the way the field thinks about what it takes to build materials that are both useful and sustainable,” he says.
ELECTRONICS WITHOUT THE USE OF BATTERIES
Our obsession with personal electronics is producing a tremendous backlog.
By 2030, humanity’s battery-powered gadgets could number in the billions, based on current trends.
Josiah Hester, a computer engineer at Northwestern University, seeks to prevent those power-hungry devices from overburdening landfills with potentially harmful power cells.
His proposal is simple but revolutionary: let these tiny computers generate their power.
Hester’s team makes a variety of small, clever, battery-free gadgets that harvest energy from the environment.
His study is based on a notion known as intermittent computing, which is a technique that can deal with periodic power and internet connectivity outages—in other words, gadgets that can function without the grid’s steady hum.
His team builds circuit boards that combine off-the-shelf CPUs from Texas Instruments with sensors and circuitry to tap power sources such as the sun, radio waves from the environment, heat gradients, microorganisms, and impact forces.
In addition, the team creates bespoke software to keep the sensors working.
The most remarkable aspect of these circuit boards is that they do not contain any batteries.
When juice is available, it flows via capacitors, and gadgets are engineered to handle brief power outages when it is not.
Hester unveiled his proof of concept in 2020: a handheld gaming gadget (ENGAGE) inspired by the legendary Game Boy.
It gets its power from microscopic solar cells that frame its screen, as well as the impacts of button presses, which generate electricity when a magnet passes through a coil.
(Similarly, shakable Faraday flashlights work.) The toy can’t compete with the energy-hungry processors found in most immersive platforms, but it’s a sign of things to come.
During the epidemic, Hester’s lab created a prototype “smart mask” with tiny sensors that monitor vital indications such as temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate, all powered by the vibrations of the user’s breaths.
The ability to detach gadgets from the electrical grid makes them more useful for remote applications.
Hester is working on a project to track wild rice habitats and avian flocks in the Kakagon Sloughs, a Great Lakes conservation area maintained by the Ojibwa people.
Water quality and the noises of crop-ravaging ducks will be tracked when the sensors,
which capture energy from soil bacteria and sunlight, are deployed later this year.
On Palmyra Atoll, an island in the Pacific Ocean surrounded by more than 15,000 acres of coral reef, he’s also collaborating with the Nature Conservancy to install noninvasive, solar-powered cameras.
Once a meteorological station and nuclear testing monitoring facility, the location is now ideal for tracking migrating birds and, maybe, the effects of climate change on marine species.
Hester is guided by a worldview he owes to his Native Hawaiian culture as he explores the limits of intermittent computing to increase device sustainability.
It all boils down to one basic question: “How can you make judgments now that will benefit seven generations from now?”
DATA STORAGE IN A CHEMICAL SOUP
According to a recent assessment, Earth only has enough permanent physical storage space to store 10% of the more than 64 billion gigabytes of data generated by humanity in 2020.
Fortunately for us, not every meme or tweet has to be immortalized.
However, given that our output has doubled since 2018, it’s legitimate to be concerned that critical material such as historical records and priceless family photos may soon be lost.
Brenda Rubenstein, a theoretical chemist at Brown University, seeks to tackle this challenge.
She intends to use evolution’s storage designs (read: molecules) to develop a revolutionary new sort of hard drive: a liquid hard drive.
Her molecular computers crunch numbers and store data using small dissolved molecules.
In the year 2020, she and her colleagues created a binary code puree from a combination of tiny amines, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and isocyanides.
Rubenstein points out that “the way you can store information in that disorderly combination of molecules flying around is through their presence or absence.”
“If the molecule is there, it is a one; if the molecule is absent, it is a zero.”
A scan of a Picasso painting was successfully stored and retrieved using the technology, which was published in Nature Communications.
In 2021, she and her colleagues used a similar slurry to create a neural network,
a sort of AI capable of recognizing simple black-and-white photos of animals such as kangaroos and starfish.
The development of molecular storage has already begun. Experiments with embedding information into DNA, or long-chain molecules, stretch back to the early 2000s,
and computer giants like Microsoft and IBM, as well as niche companies and the US government’s spy agency, IARPA, have all been involved.
Small molecules, on the other hand, may offer different advantages over DNA.
Their structures are easier to synthesize (less expensive to produce), more robust (less prone to deterioration),
and less error-prone (since reading and writing do not require sequencing or encoding).
Furthermore, a flask of tiny molecules could carry the equivalent of 200 Empire State Buildings’ worth of terabyte hard discs, according to Rubenstein’s estimations.
The molecules’ lifespans, when stored as dried crystals, might outlast even modern storage media—possibly hundreds of years,
compared to the 10 to 20 years of existing hard drives and magnetic tapes.
The most significant trade-off is speed. Rubenstein’s method would take around six hours to preserve this piece,
and reading it again would require specialized equipment such as a mass spectrometer,
making it better suited to archive preservation than everyday computing.
Rubenstein and her colleagues have filed a patent for chemical computing in the last few years, and they’re in talks with a venture capital firm to form a company focused on emerging technology.
“What wakes me up in the morning is the idea of computing with small molecules,” adds Rubenstein.
SMART SEWERS FOR TRACKING PUBLIC HEALTH
Assistant Professor of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering at Washington University in Saint Louis, Fangqiong Ling. Rifkin, Nicole
The word Beijing brings up visions of skyscrapers, traffic, and throngs of people.
Fangqiong Ling, who grew up in the city of more than 20 million people, remembers the city’s gorgeous lakes,
Which still have the names of the Qing era from the 17th century: Qianhai, Houhai, and Xihai. In high school, Ling investigated algal blooms in these pools.
She and her classmates analyzed water quality using benthic crustaceans (such as crayfish, snails, and worms), knowing that various species tend to congregate in clean or polluted habitats.
Since then, she’s been transforming smaller and smaller living organisms into sensors.
Ling, a Washington University in St. Louis environmental microbiologist and chemical engineer, continues to research the H2O that flows through urban infrastructure.
She has, however, moved away from water quality and toward wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and the use of “smart sewers.”
This idea isn’t new: For years, public health officials have tested sewage for a variety of biologics and chemicals, including illegal narcotics, viruses, germs, antibiotics, and prescription pharmaceuticals.
However, they lacked the instruments to adequately account for the number of human sources in their samples, making it difficult to determine the scope and scale of contamination.
If high levels of nicotine are found in a sewage sample, the surge could be the result of a single toilet flush from a hardcore smoker close to the collection place or the consequence of numerous smokers across the city.
It’s easy to see how the difference between coronavirus and anthrax matters.
Ling’s breakthrough was figuring out how to estimate the true size of the population that contributed to the sample by using the relative quantities of people’s gut bacteria in wastewater (as revealed by fast sequencing their RNA).
Her field is experiencing a renaissance. Many towns have resorted to WBE during COVID-19, which has grown from a dozen or so initiatives to over 200 worldwide.
As a public health tool, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced a new National Wastewater Surveillance System in 2020.
With a grant from the National Science Foundation in 2021, Ling hopes to enhance population estimates so that commuters, tourists, and other transients don’t bias the results.
These technologies are the first step toward automated, extremely accurate assessments of pollutants and contagions in specific places.
Ling observes, “Microbes have a very essential interaction with humans and our cities.”
“All I want to do is find out what stories they have to tell.”
LIGHT SHINES ON DARK MATTER
The mainstream cosmological model explains how stars, planets, solar systems,
and galaxies formed from a raging cloud of primordial particles, as well as less-understood things like black holes.
While there is plenty of evidence to back up the big bang (such as the expansion of the universe and the background radiation left behind by the cosmic event), there are a few problematic holes.
Take, for example, dark matter. There should be at least five times more mass than we’ve seen in galaxies for them to revolve at the rates we’ve seen.
According to Michael Troxel, a cosmologist at Duke University, “we have no evidence that dark matter exists, save that it is required for the universe to end up where we are today.”
Troxel creates maps of the universe that are larger and more exact than any before to fill in the gaps.
Troxel has been collaborating with the Dark Energy Survey (DES), ambitious multinational cooperation of over 400 scientists since 2014 to explore key unknowns in the universe.
DES attached a unique 570-megapixel camera with an image sensor tailored to red light—as objects travel farther away, their wavelengths lengthen, making them appear more crimson,
and set it atop a telescope perched high in the Chilean Andes to observe faraway skies. It can see 300 million galaxies from that vantage point.
Troxel, who is now co-chair of the DES Science Committee, oversaw the analysis of data collected until 2016,
spotting dark matter’s countless fingerprints on celestial bodies across spacetime in exquisite detail.
The brightness and redness of objects show their distance as well as how long they’ve been traveling (due to the expansion of the universe).
Weak gravitational lensing, which models small bends in light (imagine magnified or stretched waves), shows massy objects both seen and unseen.
The appearance of the things themselves also contributes to the picture’s completion: Troxel compiled a library of over 1,000 types of galaxies by using machine learning to detect patterns in galaxy colors (shades of red and faintness) and mathematical modeling to predict geometries (elliptical, spiral, irregular).
Having a visual reference for what clusters should look like aids in the detection of deviations that could indicate dark matter.
Troxel continues, “This allows us to recreate this 3D representation of not just how the universe looks now,
but how it appeared 6 or even 9 billion years ago.”
The discoveries, which were made public in May 2021, include one-eighth of the sky and more than 100 million galaxies.
Troxel believes that by the time the whole DES data set is available (perhaps in 2023), we will be able to anticipate and calculate dark matter.
“There will be a watershed moment where we measure the right thing, or we measure the things we’re measuring today with enough precision that we fundamentally learn where physics is broken,” he predicts.
“We’re almost there,” says the narrator.
TECHNOLOGY ADAPTION FOR THOSE WHO NEED IT THE MOST
People with impairments, according to Stacy Branham, are original life hackers, which is a horrible thing.
A computer scientist at the University of California, Irvine believes that no one should have to be a MacGyver to get by in life.
Apps and gadgets are frequently adapted to meet the requirements of marginalized populations.
Visually handicapped persons, for example, manipulated record players to run at a faster speed in the 1950s,
allowing them to “skim” audiobooks for school or work; today, browser addons that speed up videos have the same effect.
Branham wants to leverage similar findings from the start to create better goods. She claims that “innovation is having the proper people in the room.”
Branham combines commercially available technologies, such as virtual assistants, in creative ways to meet the needs of underserved areas.
Jamie, one of her efforts, provides step-by-step instructions to assist the elderly and disabled in navigating Byzantine airport procedures, signs, and corridors.
Jamie relies on voice help, a geolocation system that leverages information from Bluetooth beacons and WiFi signals, as well as “staff-sourcing”
(daily reports from airport employees regarding dynamic changes such as maintenance work) and aural cues or sensations.
COVID- Plans to test the system at Los Angeles International Airport were thwarted by Hurricane Harvey, but Branham expects it will be revived soon.
“It was designed from the ground up with input from those who are blind, wheelchair users, and older adults,” she says,
adding that the technology will benefit anyone who gets lost in airports.
Branham’s next goal is to modify text-to-speech technology to assist blind parents in reading to their children.
Her planned Google Voice-based program will operate as an e-book interpreter,
urging caregivers with the correct words and image descriptions via headphones so that they may have a richer story-time experience with their families.
When modern tools are created with disabled groups in mind, there is frequently a widespread benefit,
consider the now-ubiquitous curb cuts that allow people with strollers and bags to pass just as easily as people in wheelchairs.
Branham also mentions how her software could benefit others, such as individuals who learn English as a second language.
In the end, she judges her success differently than most individuals who design personal electronic gadgets: not by whether she can come up with exciting new features,
but by whether the benefits of innovation and science are available to those who need them most.
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